Review Volume 14, Issue 2 pp 1048—1064

Acquired resistance for immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy: challenges and prospects


Figure 2. The mechanisms of acquired resistance of immunotherapy and the interaction between them. Generally, it is manifested in four aspects: tumor cell itself, the level of ICs, non-tumor cells in the TME and others. The arrow between modules represents the direction of regulation, and its color corresponds to each module. The arrow in the ICs module represents up regulation.