Review Volume 14, Issue 2 pp 1048—1064

Acquired resistance for immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy: challenges and prospects


Figure 3. The cross-talks between immune and non-immune cells within the TME. In the TME, all kinds of cells secrete soluble molecules and interact with each other, such as prostaglandin E2(PGE2), arginase-1(ARG1), adenosine, transforming growth factor β(TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-10, indoleamine2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), exosomes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and so on. These factors inhibit the function and proliferation of CD4+/ CD8+ T cells, promote angiogenesis, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and tumor metastasis.