During the past two decades, several interventions have been shown to increase the healthy lifespan of model organisms as evolutionarily distant from each other as yeast, worms, flies and mammals. These anti-aging maneuvers include (but are not limited to) cycles of caloric restriction, physical exercise as well as the administration of multiple, chemically unrelated agents, such as resveratrol, spermidine and various rapamycin-like compounds collectively known as rapalogs. Most, if not all, lifespan-extending agents promote macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), an evolutionarily old mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis and plays a critical role in the adaptive response of cells to stress. In line with this notion, the activation of autophagy appears to mediate significant anti-ageing effects in several organisms, including mice. Here, we focus on rapalogs to discuss the possibility that part of the beneficial activity of lifespan-extending agents stems from their ability to exert immunostimulatory effects. Accumulating evidence indicates indeed that the immune system can recognize and eliminate not only cells that are prone to undergo malignant transformation, but also senescent cells, thus playing a significant role in the control of organismal aging. In addition, it has recently become clear that rapamycin and other rapalogs, which for a long time have been viewed (and used in the clinic) as pure immunosuppressants, can mediate robust immunostimulatory functions, at least in some circumstances.