Diabetes afflicts hundreds of millions worldwide. People affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; the insulin-deficient form of diabetes) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; the insulin-resistant form of diabetes) have significantly reduced life expectancy compared to normal individuals. This is due in part to the fact that (despite improvements) current anti-diabetic approaches are suboptimal. Indeed, severe morbidities (e.g.: cardiovascular disease, hypertension) are still too often associated with diabetes. Recent preclinical results indicate that different types of hypothalamic neurons are endowed with the ability to mediate the hyperglycemia-lowering action of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in an insulin-dependent and insulin-independent fashion. These results may pave the way for better anti-diabetic approaches and therefore positively impact on life expectancy of diabetic subjects