Atherosclerosis is a chronic and multifactorial inflammatory disease and is closely associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. circRNAs can act as competing endogenous RNAs to mRNAs and function in various diseases. However, there is little known about the function of circRNAs in atherosclerosis. In this study, three rabbits in the case group were fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis and another three rabbits were fed a normal diet. To explore the biological functions of circRNAs in atherosclerosis, we analyzed the circRNA, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles using RNA-seq. Many miRNAs, mRNAs and circRNAs were identified as significantly changed in atherosclerosis. We next predicted miRNA-target interactions with the miRanda tool and constructed a differentially expressed circRNA-miRNA-mRNA triple network. A gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that genes in the network were involved in cell adhesion, cell activation and the immune response. Furthermore, we generated a dysregulated circRNA-related ceRNAs network and found seven circRNAs (ocu-cirR-novel-18038, -18298, -15993, -17934, -17879, -18036 and -14389) were related to atherosclerosis. We found these circRNAs also functioned in cell adhesion, cell activation and the immune response. These results show that the crosstalk between circRNAs and their competing mRNAs might play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerosis.