Although osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic age-related diseases, there is currently no gold standard for treatment. Evidence suggests resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, may be helpful in the treatment of osteoporosis and other diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-osteoporotic effects of resveratrol remain largely unknown. In the present study, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of resveratrol-targeted genes identified 33 associated pathways, 12 of which were also involved in osteoporosis. In particular, the MDM2/p53 signaling pathway was identified as a potential key pathway among the shared pathways. In vitro experiments indicated that MDM2-mediated p53 degradation induced osteoblast differentiation, and resveratrol could partially reverse p53-dependent inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. These findings suggest resveratrol may alleviate osteoporosis at least in part by modulating the MDM2/p53 signaling pathway.