The oral cavity plays a crucial role in food digestion and immune protection. Thus, maintaining oral health is necessary. Postbiotic and heat-killed probiotic cells have shown increased antibacterial potential with stable viability compared with live strains. However, clinical evidence regarding their effect on oral health is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we tested postbiotic lozenges of Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32, L. paracasei ET-66, and L. plantarum LPL28 and heat-killed probiotic lozenges of L. salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32 and L. paracasei ET-66 for their effect on oral health. In total, 75 healthy individuals were blindly and randomly divided into placebo, postbiotic lozenge, and heat-killed probiotic lozenge groups and were administered the respective lozenge type for 4 weeks. Postbiotic and heat-killed probiotic lozenge groups demonstrated antibacterial activities with a considerable increase in L. salivarius in their oral cavity. Furthermore, their salivary immunoglobulin A, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium increased. Subjective questionnaires completed by the participants indicated that participants in both the experimental groups developed better oral health and intestinal conditions than those in the placebo group. Overall, our study revealed that a food additive in the form of an oral postbiotic or heat-killed probiotic lozenge may effectively enhance oral immunity, inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, and increase the numbers of beneficial oral microbiota.