Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious chronic respiratory disorder. One of the major risk factors for COPD progression is aging. Therefore, we investigated aging-related genes in COPD using bioinformatic analyses. Firstly, the Aging Atlas database containing 500 aging-related genes and the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE38974) were utilized to screen candidates. A total of 24 candidate genes were identified related to both COPD and aging. Using gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses, we found that this list of 24 genes was enriched in genes associated with cytokine activity, cell apoptosis, NF-κB and IL-17 signaling. Four of these genes (CDKN1A, HIF1A, MXD1 and SOD2) were determined to be significantly upregulated in clinical COPD samples and in cigarette smoke extract-exposed Beas-2B cells in vitro, and their expression was negatively correlated with predicted forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity. In addition, the combination of expression levels of these four genes had a good discriminative ability for COPD patients (AUC = 0.794, 95% CI 0.743–0.845). All four were identified as target genes of hsa-miR-519d-3p, which was significantly down-regulated in COPD patients. The results from this study proposed that regulatory network of hsa-miR-519d-3p/CDKN1A, HIF1A, MXD1, and SOD2 closely associated with the progression of COPD, which provides a theoretical basis to link aging effectors with COPD progression, and may suggest new diagnostic and therapeutic targets of this disease.