The regenerative capacity of the liver after resection is reduced with aging. Recent studies on rodents revealed that both intracellular and extracellular factors are involved in the impairment of liver mass recovery during aging. Among the intracellular factors, age-dependent decrease of BubR1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-related 1), YAP (Yes-associated protein) and SIRT1 (Sirtuin-1) have been associated to dampening of tissue reconstitution and inhibition of cell cycle genes following partial hepatectomy. Extra-cellular factors, such as age-dependent changes in hepatic stellate cells affect liver regeneration through inhibition of progenitor cells and reduction of liver perfusion. Furthermore, chronic release of pro-inflammatory proteins by senescent cells (SASP) affects cell proliferation suggesting that senescent cell clearance might improve tissue regeneration. Accordingly, young plasma restores liver regeneration in aged animals through autophagy re-establishment. This review will discuss how intracellular and extracellular factors cooperate to guarantee a proper liver regeneration and the possible causes of its impairment during aging. The possibility that an improvement of the liver regenerative capacity in elderly might be achieved through elimination of senescent cells via autophagy or by administration of direct mitogenic agents devoid of cytotoxicity will also be entertained.