Vascular calcification is a major risk for cardiovascular disease and implies the transformation of smooth muscle cells to an osteoblastic phenotype as a consequence of dysregulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is the most potent phosphate regulator. Observational studies suggest that high levels of FGF23 are related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this work, we determined the levels of both the intact and the carboxi-terminal fragments of circulating FGF23 in 133 patients with established cardiovascular disease, the expression of FGF23, its receptors 1 and 3, and its co-receptor Klotho in vascular fragments of aorta, carotid and femoral in 43 out of this group of patients, and in a control group of 20 organ donors. Patients with atherosclerosis and vascular calcification presented increased levels of FGF23 respect to the control group. Vascular immunoreactivity for FGF23 was also significantly increased in patients with vascular calcification as compared to patients without calcification and to controls. Finally, gene expression of FGF23 and RUNX2 were also higher and directly related in vascular samples with calcification. Conversely, expression of Klotho was reduced in patients with cardiovascular disease when comparing to controls. In conclusion, our findings link the calcification of the vascular tissue with the expression of FGF23 in the vessels and with the elevation of circulating levels this hormone.