The neurotoxin MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) disrupts mitochondrial function leading to oxidative stress and neuronal death. Here we examine whether activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 cascade can protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CBR-470-1, an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), leads to methylglyoxal modification of Keap1, Keap1-Nrf2 disassociation, and increased expression of Nrf2 responsive genes. Pretreatment with CBR-470-1 potently attenuated MPP+-induced oxidative injury and SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. CBR-470-1 neuroprotection is dependent upon Nrf2, as Nrf2 shRNA or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Nrf2 knockout, abolished CBR-470-1-induced SH-SY5Y cytoprotection against MPP+. Consistent with these findings, PGK1 depletion or knockout mimicked CBR-470-1-induced actions and rendered SH-SY5Y cells resistant to MPP+-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, activation of the Nrf2 cascade by CRISPR/Cas9-induced Keap1 knockout protected SH-SY5Y cells from MPP+. In Keap1 or PGK1 knockout SH-SY5Y cells,CBR-470-1 failed to offer further cytoprotection against MPP+. Collectively PGK1 inhibition by CBR-470-1 protects SH-SY5Y cells from MPP+ via activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 cascade.