Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has been well known as the second most common primary tumor of hepatobiliary system. PSMC2 (proteasome 26S subunit ATPase 2) is a key member of the 19S regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, responsible for catalyzing the unfolding and translocation of substrates into the 20S proteasome, whose role in CCA is totally unknown. In this study, the results of immunohistochemistry analysis showed the upregulation of PSMC2 in CCA tissues compared with normal tissues, which was statistically analyzed to be associated with CCA tumor grade. Subsequently, the loss-of-function study suggested that knockdown of PSMC2 significantly suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration, promoted cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle distribution in vitro. The decreased tumorigenicity of CCA cells with PSMC2 knockdown was confirmed in vivo by using mice xenograft model. In PSMC2 knockdown cells, pro-apoptotic protein Caspase3 was upregulated; anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and IGF-II were downregulated; among EMT markers, E-cadherin was upregulated while N-cadherin and Vimentin were downregulated, by which may PSMC2 regulates cell apoptosis and migration. Furthermore, through RNA-seq and verification by qPCR, western blotting and co-IP assays, CDK1 was identified as the potential downstream of PSMC2 mediated regulation of CCA. PSMC2 and CDK1 showed mutual regulation effects on expression level of each other. Knockdown of PSMC2 could aggregate the influence of CDK1 knockdown on cellular functions of CCA cells. In summary, our findings suggested that PSMC2 possesses oncogene-like functions in the development and progression of CCA through regulating CDK1, which may be used as an effective therapeutic target in CCA treatment.