Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 19 pp 22898—22911

Downregulation of KIF2C and TEKT2 is associated with male infertility and testicular carcinoma

Haiming Cao1, *, , Zi Wan2, *, , Fei Wang4, , Ziyin Liu5, , Xiaofeng Li3, , Jianquan Hou1, ,

  • 1 The Urology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China
  • 2 The Urology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
  • 3 The Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, PR China
  • 4 The Urology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui, PR China
  • 5 Medical Research Center, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
* Equal contribution

Received: February 8, 2021       Accepted: September 3, 2021       Published: September 30, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Cao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Genetic factors are important in spermatogenesis and fertility maintenance, and are potentially significant biomarkers for the early detection of infertility. However, further understanding of these biological processes is required.

Methods: In the present study, we sought to identify associated genes by reanalyzing separate studies from Gene Expression Omnibus datasets (GSE45885, GSE45887 and GSE9210) and validation datasets (GSE4797, 145467, 108886, 6872). The differential genes were used the limma package in R language. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed by the clusterprofier package. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by the STRING database. The interaction between mRNA and TF was predicted by miRWalk web. At last, The Cancer Genome Atlas data were used to identify hub gene expression levels in GEPIA web.

Results: The results showed that 27 shared genes associated with spermatogenesis. We effectively screen out two genes (KIF2C and TEKT2) and both validated by GSE4797, 145467, 108886 and 6872. Among 27 shared genes, KIF2C and TEKT2 both down-regulated in spermatogenesis. The network of TF-miRNA-target gene was established, we found KIF2C-miRNAs (has-miR-3154, 6075, 6760-5p, 1251-5p, 186-sp)-TFs (EP300, SP1) might work in spermatogenesis.

Conclusions: Our study might help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms in spermatogenesis and provide diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics targets.


GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus database; TCGA: The cancer genome atlas; DEG: differently expressed gene; GGN: gametogenetin; GSG1: germ cell associated 1; ADCY10: adenylate cyclase 10; GTSF1L: gametocyte-specific factor 1 like; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information Database; BP: biological process; CC: cellular compartment; MF: molecular function; GEPIA: Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis; FC: fold change; GO: Gene Ontology; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; TF: Transcript factor; KIF2C: Kinesin Family Member 2C; TEKT2: Tektin 2; MACK: mitotic centromere-associated kinesin; DSBs: DNA Double Strand Break; NOA: Non-obstructive azoospermia; MT: microtubule; IGF2: insulin-like growth factor II.