Background: The study aims to explore the efficacy of adding hyperthermia to the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients based on the states of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

Patients and methods: We included 205 advanced NSCLC patients who were received hyperthermia plus other treatment (hyperthermia group) or non- hyperthermia and other treatments (non- hyperthermia group). The OS and progression free survival (PFS) were retrospectively estimated. Using Kaplan-Meier and the log-rank test compare the OS and PFS between the groups.

Results: The median follow-up was 22 months. The Univariate analysis have shown that 1-year OS and PFSfirst rates in the hyperthermia group and non- hyperthermia group were 83.3% vs 71.5% (P=0.010) and 62.0% vs 42.7% (P=0.001). The subgroup analyses revealed that patients didn’t have EGFR mutant who received hyperthermia had significantly higher 1 year OS and PFSfirst rates than those treated with non- hyperthermia (OS: 79.1% vs 65.2% P=0.037, PFS: 64.2% vs 36.5%, P=0.001). For patients with EGFR mutation, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The PFSfirst in first-line and PFSpost in posterior-line was no significant difference between the groups.

Conclusions: This retrospective study revealed that adding hyperthermia to the treatment of NSCLC patients without EGFR mutation had better prognosis than those who did not adding hyperthermia to the regimen. Moreover, adding hyperthermia in first-line or in posterior-line treatment was no significant difference. However, these results need more prospective studies to confirm the conclusions.