Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) are responsible for acyl-CoA synthesis from nonpolar hydrophilic fatty acids and play a vital role in many metabolic processes. As a category of ACS isozymes, members of ACS family (AACS, ACSF2-3, AASDH) participate in lipid metabolism; however, their expression patterns, regulatory mechanisms and effects in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. Here, through evaluating the expression profiles of ACSF gene family, we found that upregulated AACS might be more significant and valuable in development and progression of HCC. Consequently, the mRNA expression levels of AACS and ACSF2 was accordantly increased in HCC. Kaplan-Meier plotter revealed that HCC patients with high level of AACS were highly related to a shorter overall survival time and relapse-free survival. Genetic alterations using cBioPortal revealed that the alteration rate of AACS were 5%. We also found that the functions of ACSF gene family were linked to several cancer-associated pathways, including long-term potentiation, phospholipase D signaling pathway and purine metabolism. TIMER database indicated that the AACS and ACSF2 had a strong relationship with the infiltration of six types of immune cells (macrophages, neutrophils, CD8+ T-cells, B-cells, CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells). Next, Diseasemeth database revealed that the global methylation levels of ACSF2 was higher in HCC patients. In conclusion, this study firstly demonstrated that Acyl-CoA synthesis gene family, in particular, AACS, could be associated with immune microenvironment, thereby influencing the development and prognosis of patients with HCC.