Long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) is abnormally expressed in numerous tumors and functions as an oncogene, but the role of NEAT1 in laryngocarcinoma is largely unknown. Our study validated that NEAT1 expression was markedly upregulated in laryngocarcinoma tissues and cells. Downregulation of NEAT1 dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and invasion through inhibiting miR-524-5p expression. Additionally, NEAT1 overexpression promoted cell growth and metastasis, while overexpression of miR-524-5p could reverse the effect. NEAT1 increased the expression of histone deacetylase 1 gene (HDAC1) via sponging miR-524-5p. Mechanistically, overexpression of HDAC1 recovered the cancer-inhibiting effects of miR-524-5p mimic or NEAT1 silence by deacetylation of tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and inhibiting AKT signal pathway. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicated that silence of NEAT1 signally suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, knockdown of NEAT1 suppressed laryngocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis by miR-524-5p/HDAC1/PTEN/AKT signal pathway, which provided a potential therapeutic target for laryngocarcinoma.