The present study was performed to assess the protective effect of fluoxetine (FLX) on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) via the regulation of miR-450b-5p/Nrf2 axis in male rats. In vivo, these male rats were randomly divided into different treatment groups. The rats were administered with FLX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once daily for 3 days before operation. The pathomorphological changes of renal tissues were assessed by histological examination and Masson staining. In vitro, HK-2 cells were used to detect the activity by CCK-8 assay in Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) group and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation+Fluoxetine (H/R+FLX) group. In addition, the oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. Subsequently, Nrf2, NF-κB, and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes, were detected by Western blot assay. In vivo, the pathological changes and serological renal function were significantly relieved in the rats with the pre-treatment of FLX, compared to IRI group. After FLX stimulation, the expression levels of oxidative stress indices significantly decreased, while tissue antioxidant indices significantly increased, compared to IRI group. The differently expressed miRNAs on renal IRI in male rats were screened out by miRNA microarray, especially showing that miR-450b-5p was selected as the target miRNA. Following miR-450b-5p agomir injection, the pathological changes and oxidative stress biomarkers significantly aggravated, whether in IRI group or IRI+FLX group. Bioinformatics analysis and double-luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-450b-5p directly targeted Nrf2. The expression level of NF-κB significantly increased, while the expression levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased after miR-450b-5p agomir injection. Furthermore, the expression levels of Nrf2 and it-dependent antioxidant enzymes were apparently increased in ischemic kidney after the transfection of miR-450b-5p mimic+recombination protein Nrf2, as well as the decreased expression levels of intracellular ROS and iNOS. In vitro, FLX significantly increased HK-2 cell viability, and relieved H/R HK-2 cell oxidative injury via down-regulating ROS and iNOS. In addition, H/R-induced oxidative damage was recovered with miR-450b-5p mimic and recombination protein Nrf2. Consequently, FLX played an important protective role in renal IRI-induced oxidative damage by promoting antioxidation via targeting miR-450b-5p/Nrf2 axis.