The role of the majority of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the progression of nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive, despite their potential value, thus warranting in-depth studies. For example, detailed functions of the lncRNA POU6F2 antisense RNA 2 (POU6F2-AS2) in NSCLC are unknown. Herein, we investigated the expression status of POU6F2-AS2 in NSCLC. Furthermore, we systematically delineated the biological roles of POU6F2-AS2 in NSCLC alongside its downstream molecular events. We measured the expression levels of POU6F2-AS2 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and performed a series of functional experiments to address its regulatory effects in NSCLC cells. Using bioinformatic platforms, RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assays, and rescue experiments, we investigated the potential mechanisms of POU6F2-AS2 in NSCLC. Subsequently, we confirmed the remarkable overexpression of POU6F2-AS2 in NSCLC using The Cancer Genome Atlas database and our own cohort. Functionally, inhibiting POU6F2-AS2 decreased NSCLC cell proliferation, colony formation, and motility, whereas POU6F2-AS2 overexpression exhibited contrasting effects. Mechanistically, POU6F2-AS2 acts as an endogenous decoy for microRNA-125b-5p (miR-125b-5p) in NSCLC that causes the overexpression of the E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3). Moreover, suppressing miR-125b-5p or increasing E2F3 expression levels sufficiently recovered the anticarcinostatic activities in NSCLC induced by POU6F2-AS2 silencing. Thus, POU6F2-AS2 aggravates the oncogenicity of NSCLC by targeting the miR-125b-5p/E2F3 axis. Our findings suggest that POU6F2-AS2 is a novel therapeutic target for NSCLC.