The mechanism underlying xerostomia after menopause has not yet been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of xerostomia and the effect of the ferroptosis inhibitors deferoxamine (DFO) and ferrostatin-1 (FER) on salivary gland dysfunction in a postmenopausal animal model. Twenty-four female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: a SHAM group (n = 6, sham-operated rats), an OVX group (n = 6, ovariectomized rats), an FER group (n = 6, ovariectomized rats injected intraperitoneally with FER), and a DFO group (n = 6, ovariectomized rats injected intraperitoneally with DFO). GPX4 activity, iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, fibrosis, and salivary gland function were analyzed. Recovery of GPX4 activity and a decrease in iron accumulation and cytosolic MDA + HAE were observed in the DFO group. In addition, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β levels were decreased in the DFO group compared to the OVX group. Recovery of GPX4 activity and the morphology of mitochondria, and reduction of cytosolic MDA + HAE were also observed in the FER group. In addition, decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis markers and increased expression of AQP5 were observed in both the DFO and FER groups. Postmenopausal salivary gland dysfunction is associated with ferroptosis, and DFO and FER may reverse the postmenopausal salivary gland dysfunction after menopause. DFO and FER are hence considered promising treatments for postmenopausal xerostomia.