Wushen (WS) is a mixed food containing 55 natural products that is beneficial to human health. This study aimed to reveal the preventive effect of WS on aging via a combined analysis of gut microbiome and metabolome. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as aging model and senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice as control. The mice were fed four diet types; control diet (for SAMR1 mice), standard diet (for SAMP8 mice, as SD group), WS diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT; transplanted from aging-WS mice). Our results showed that the weight, food intake, neurological function, and general physical conditions significantly improved in WS-fed mice compared to those fed with SD. The CA1 hippocampal region in WS-fed aged mice showed fewer shriveled neurons and increased neuronal layers compared to that of the SD group. WS-fed mice showed a decrease in malondialdehyde and an increase in superoxide dismutase levels in the brain; additionally, IL-6 and TNF-α levels significantly decreased, whereas IL-2 levels and the proportion of lymphocytes, CD3+CD8+ T, and CD4+IFNγ+T cells increased in WS-fed mice. After fed with WS, the abundance of Ruminococcus and Butyrivibrio markedly increased, whereas Lachnoclostridium and Ruminiclostridium significantly decreased in the aging mice. In addition, 887 differentially expressed metabolites were identified in fecal samples, among these, Butyrivibrio was positively correlated with D-glucuronic acid and Ruminococcus was positively associated with 5-acetamidovalerate. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the impact of WS on aging, and WS may be a valuable diet for preventing aging.