Due to global aging, frailty and sarcopenia are increasing. Sarcopenia is defined as loss of volume and strength of skeletal muscle in elderlies, while frailty involves multiple domains of aging-related dysfunction, impaired cognition, hypomobility, and decreased social activity. However, little is known about the metabolic basis of sarcopenia, either shared with or discrete from frailty. Here we analyzed comprehensive metabolomic data of human blood in relation to sarcopenia, previously collected from 19 elderly participants in our frailty study. Among 131 metabolites, we identified 22 sarcopenia markers, distinct from 15 frailty markers, mainly including antioxidants, although sarcopenia overlaps clinically with physical frailty. Notably, 21 metabolites that decline in sarcopenia or low SMI are uremic compounds that increase in kidney dysfunction. These comprise TCA cycle, urea cycle, nitrogen, and methylated metabolites. Sarcopenia markers imply a close link between muscle and kidney function, while frailty markers define a state vulnerable to oxidative stress.